CADBOROSAURUS LOCATION: Cadborosaurus, nicknamed Caddy, is a sea serpent in the folklore of regions of the Pacific Coast of North America. Its name is derived from Cadboro Bay in Greater Victoria, British Columbia, and the Greek root word "saurus" meaning lizard or reptile. DESCRIPTION: Cadborosaurus willsi is said by witnesses to resemble a serpent with vertical coils or humps in tandem behind the horse-like head and long neck, with a pair of small elevating front flippers, and either a pair of hind flippers, or a pair of large webbed hind flippers fused to form a large fan- like tail region that provides powerful forward propulsion. ALTERNATE EXPLANATIONS: Conger eels, humpback whales, elephant seals, ribbon or oarfish, basking sharks, and sea lions. LOCATIONS: A native image that fits Caddy's description has been traditionally used throughout Alaska. The image indicates that Caddy or a Caddy-like creature moves north to Vancouver when the waters warm. The Inuit of Alaska has even put the picture on their canoes to keep the creature away. SIGHTING HISTORY: There have been more than 300 claimed sightings during the past 200 years, including Deep Cove in Saanich Inlet, and Island View Beach, both like Cadboro Bay also on the Saanich Peninsula, also British Columbia, and also at San Francisco Bay, California. CAFRE LOCATION: Philippines DESCRIPTION: The Cafre or Kafre resides in the Philippines and resembles a wild boar that can walk upright, but it mostly resides on all fours. It is said to bear ferocious tusks. The natives of the Philippines say the Cafre can speak local languages, but it has very little intelligence. It can be tricked into the loss of tracking of its human prey. Rarely has this creature been known to help anybody. ALTERNATE EXPLANATIONS: A wild boar has similarities with the Buata, but this boar is bipedal, walking upright like a human. CALOPUS LOCATION: The first known depiction of the Calopus (also known as the Chatloup or the Aptaleon) was found carved in a block of wood in Norfolk England’s Raveningham church, which was erected sometime around 1383. Although this is the first known physical representation of this beast, tales of the Calopus actually harkens back to ancient Babylon. DESCRIPTION: The Calopus is a creature, said to bear the features of a wolf, a boar, a feral cat and a reptile, but it was most feared for its large, serrated; ram-like horns.  Often used for symbolic purposes in medieval heraldry – the practice of devising, blazoning, and granting armorial insignia – this creature was described as having a large, wolf-like body, a feline face, a boar-like snout, and a goat’s beard. Said to support itself on cloven fore- hooves, and a reptilian hindquarters, perhaps this beast’s the most notable characteristics were its two serrated horns, which eyewitnesses claimed were strong enough to fell trees. A skill which came in handy when wily prey would use their climbing skill as a means for escaping this voracious predator. CAMPHRUCH LOCATION: Maluku Islands or Ethiopia, on the Isle of Molucca. DESCRIPTION: The Camphruch is amphibious, living on land and in water like a crocodile. It is as big as a doe and has a thick grayish mane around the neck. The single horn on its forehead is three and a half feet long, as thick as a man’s arm at its thickest, and is movable like an Indian rooster’s comb. The forelegs are cloven deer’s hooves. The hind legs are webbed like those of a goose. Camphruchs feed on fish and swim in both fresh and salt water. ALTERNATE EXPLANATIONS: Some believe that it is a species of unicorn, and that its horn neutralizes poisons. It is entirely possible that the Camphruch was born from a muddle of multiple descriptions – narwhal, fur seal, beaver, goose, and antelope may have contributed. A much later dictionary entry dispenses with all that and describes the “Camphur” as a single-horned Arabian donkey. CANADIAN AND CUBAN ALBINO SHARK LOCATION: Very few would think to mention the Gulf of Mexico as great white shark habitat. Fewer still would guess that one of the largest, if not the largest, great white sharks ever caught have been pulled from the warm waters of the Gulf. That is precisely the case though as the great white shark does, at least infrequently, prowl the waters of the Gulf of Mexico. This would include areas off the Texas coast as far south as Corpus Christi and Padre Island. DESCRIPTION: According to records, the great white, dubbed “El Monstruo de Cojimar,” measured in excess of 21-feet in length and weighed an astounding 7,100 lbs. The size and weight of the Cojimar shark has been hotly debated ever since. Some, based on photo analysis, say the shark was closer to 16-feet in length and that it was never officially weighed at all. Regardless, it is one of four sharks, along with an Australian specimen caught back in the 1870’s near Port Fairy that allegedly measured an astounding 36-feet in length, a New Brunswick, Canada fish that is said to have been even bigger at 37.6-feet in length caught in the 1930’s, and, most incredibly of all, a great white caught by a Portugese trawler just west of the Azores that was said to be a mind-blowing 41.2-feet in length. While the accepted maximum size of the great white shark is roughly 20-feet, sightings of larger sharks continue to come in from time to time. SIGHTINGS: Early one morning in June of 1945 six Cuban fisherman set out from Cojimar, probably best known as the town where Ernest Hemingway wrote his Pulitzer Prize winning novel The Old Man and the Sea, in a 14-foot wooden skiff to fish for their standard fare of tuna, dorado, marlin, and, yes, sharks. The group took their small craft out about three miles from the coast and dropped their baited lines hoping to get into a large marlin. Several hours passed with no fish showing even a hint of interest in their bait of fresh ballyhoo. The fishermen noted that other boats in the area did not appear to be having any luck either. At about 9:00 a.m., however, the reason for the lack of action became clear as a huge dorsal fin sliced through the water near the skiff. These were experienced men who fished for a living and they had seen many sharks but nothing like this specimen. They knew if they could land the beast, it would fetch a handsome price. They had no tackle suitable for tangling with this monster so they improvised by braiding several lines together then attached that to a wire leader and shark hook. They baited the hook with half a tuna that was bitten in half by a smaller shark the previous day and tossed the rig into the water. They realized that the fish was much larger than their boat. The shark took the bait and began taking line. The men had tethered the line to several small wooden rafts or floats that are used to add buoyancy and resistance to help wear down large fish. More than an hour passed and it seemed the great fish was tiring. The fishermen retrieved line and prepared to harpoon the shark. When the great white was within 20 feet of the boat it suddenly made a run straight at the keel. It struck the small craft with incredible force and began biting the keel. Wood splinters flew in all directions. The shark retreated, circled, and prepared for another run at its tormentors. The fishermen, feeling there likely would not be another chance, readied their harpoon. They were successful in harpooning the great fish but this didn’t stop the attack. This time the great white took a bite out of the rudder. The fish continued to fight mightily for a long while but finally expired and was brought back to shore.  One of the most impressive recent sightings is of a huge shark that bit another great white measuring 11-feet long nearly in half off Stradbroke Island, Australia back in October of 2009. The smaller shark, a substantial fish itself, was hooked on a baited drum line and was a sitting duck for the much larger great white. Even more recently, a “dinosaur-sized” great white was seen attacking and “swallowing a man whole” off a South African beach in January of 2010. CANADIAN CHUPACABRA LOCATION: Bowen Island, just off the coast of Vancouver. DESCRIPTION: A local veterinarian believes it is part dog, part wolf and that it may have been abandoned after being brought to the island. “They are a mixed-up species. They are part domestic with the instincts of a wolf,” said Dr. Alastair Wescott. “They don’t react normally and so people can’t manage them, and so dumping them is a common thing to do." SIGHTINGS: A man named John Powers recently caught the animal on video, and saw it snatch a gosling out of a nearby pond. The animal has “shown no fear of coming up close to the house,” he said, “and obviously you don’t want to have a concern that he’s there and all of a sudden the kids are in his range.” The family is keeping its pets indoors and young children nearby. The animal has killed at least three dogs, more than a dozen cats and two sheep. Many deer carcasses have also been found. The municipality has set up a hot line, bought a tranquilizer gun, and enlisted a professional trapper to find the animal. Once caught, it is expected to be euthanized. Rescue organizations have been contacted, but the animal’s behavior has been so vicious they say there’s no chance of rehabilitation. CANVEY ISLAND MONSTER LOCATION: Canvey Island, England. DESCRIPTION: The 1953 specimen was described as being 2.4 ft long with thick reddish brown skin, bulging eyes and gills. It was also described as having hind legs with five-toed horseshoe-shaped feet with concave arches – which appeared to be suited for bipedal locomotion – but no forelimbs. Its remains were cremated after a cursory inspection by zoologists who said that it posed no danger to the public. The 1954 specimen was described as being similar to the first but much larger, being 3.9 ft long and weighing approximately 25 lb. It was sufficiently fresh for its eyes, nostrils and teeth to be studied, though no official explanation was given at the time as to what it was or what happened to the carcass. SIGHTINGS: The Canvey Island Monster is the name given to an unusual creature whose carcass washed up on the shores of Canvey Island, England, in November 1953. A second, more intact, carcass was discovered in August 1954. ALTERNATE EXPLANATIONS: Some have speculated that the specimens may have been some type of angler fish, whose fins had been mistaken for feet, while others have come to a more likely conclusion, that the specimens may have been frog fish, which do in fact walk on leg-like fins, have bulging eyes, and take on a variety of colors including reddish brown. In 1999, Fortean journalist Nicholas Warren carried out an investigation into the 1953–54 sightings. He was unable to locate any official records at the Plymouth Marine Biology Association Laboratory or the National Rivers Authority identifying the creature as being a known or unknown specimen, but was able to find accounts from locals who believed the creature was an angler fish. CHAMP LOCATION: Lake Champlain, a 125-mile long body of fresh water shared by New York and Vermont, with a portion extending into Quebec, Canada. The legend of the monster is considered a draw for tourism in the Burlington, Vermont and Plattsburgh, New York areas. DESCRIPTION: An 1819 report in the Plattsburgh Republican, entitled "Cape Ann Serpent on Lake Champlain", reports a "Capt. Crum" sighting an enormous serpentine monster. Crum estimated the monster to have been about 187-feet long and approximately two hundred yards away from him. Despite the great distance, he claimed to have witnessed it being followed by "two large Sturgeon and a Bill-fish" and was able to see that it had three teeth and eyes the color of peeled onions. He also described the monster as having "a belt of red" around its neck and a white star on its forehead. In 1883, Sheriff Nathan H. Mooney claimed that he had seen a water serpent about "20 rods" from where he was on the shore. He claimed that he was so close that he could see "round white spots inside its mouth" and that "the creature appeared to be about 25 to 30 feet in length". Mooney's sighting led to many more alleged eyewitnesses coming forward with their own accounts of Champ. In 1977, Sandra Mansi took a photograph while on vacation with her family that appears to show something sticking out of the lake. Champ reportedly can be seen in a video taken by fishermen Dick Affolter and his stepson Pete Bodette in the summer of 2005. One piece of evidence, though not a "sighting" per se, is the recording of sounds from within the lake by the Fauna Communications Research Institute in 2003, working as part of a Discovery Channel program. The group described the sounds as being similar to those produced by Beluga whales or dolphins—neither of which are known to live in Lake Champlain. SIGHTINGS: Over the years, there have been over 300 reported sightings of Champ. Legends of a creature living in Lake Champlain date back to Native American tribes in the region, with both the Iroquois and the Abenaki speaking of such a creature. The Abenaki referred to it as "Tatoskok". Samuel de Champlain, the founder of Québec and the lake's namesake, is often claimed to be the first European to have sighted Champ, in 1609. However, this legend dates back to a fake quote published in the Summer 1970 issue of Vermont Life. In the Vermont Life article, Champlain is alleged to have documented a "20-foot serpent thick as a barrel, and a head like a horse." This quote has often been repeated, but is in fact apocryphal. Champlain did document large fish: There is also a great abundance of fish, of many varieties: among others, one called by the savages of the country Chaoufarou, which varies in length, the largest being, as the people told me, eight or ten feet long. I saw some five feet long, which were as large as my thigh; the head being as big as my two fists, with a snout two feet and half long, and a double row of very sharp and dangerous teeth. Its body is, in shape, very much like that of a pike; but it is armed with scales so strong and a poniard could not piece them. Its color is silver-gray.” CHESSIE LOCATION: Chesapeake Bay DESCRIPTION: Over the years there have been many alleged sightings of a serpent-like creature with flippers as part of its body. Most sighting reports describe it as a long, snake-like creature, from 25 feet to 40 feet long. It is said to swim using its body as a sine curve moving through the water. SIGHTINGS: There were a rash of sightings in 1977 and more in the 1980s, with occasional reports since then. The earliest reported sighting of a Chessie-like creature may have been from a military helicopter flying over Bush River in 1936. "Something reptilian and unknown in the water" was observed by the helicopter's crew. According to Matt Lake in Weird Maryland, two perch fishermen, Francis Klarrman and Edward J. Ward, in 1943 spotted something in the water near Baltimore. In 1978, witnesses claimed to have seen Chessie near Southern Maryland's Calvert Cliffs State Park and in the Potomac River in Westmoreland County, Virginia. A sketch of an unknown sea creature, drawn by boater Trudy Guthrie, was published by the Evening Sun in September 1980. It was later identified as a manatee from Florida. Manatees are occasionally sighted in the area. Unlike the reports of a serpentine creature, manatees create a "smooth 'footprint'... as they move" rather than undulating from side to side. In 1982 Robert and Karen Frew supposedly videotaped Chessie near Kent Island. Their video shows a brownish object moving side to side like an aquatic snake. Another notable sighting of the beast was in 1997, off the shore of Fort Smallwood Park, very close to shore. The most recent reported sighting occurred on April 5, 2014, at 1:40 am. While parked on the side of Arundel Beach Road directly next to the Magothy River "when the tide was really high", a Maryland resident and his friend reportedly saw Chessie less than 5 feet away from his car. He described it a snake-like creature 25–30 feet in length, without fins, topped with a slender football-shaped head, and black in color, although he could not distinguish between having scales or leathery skin. The creature did not rise out of the water, but the head and tail end "just breached the surface" of the water as it moved "with a serpentine motion". The witness first questioned himself if it was two separate animals traveling behind one another, but soon realized that it was one creature because of the pattern it created on the water surface. There are no known snakes in Maryland that get anywhere close to 25 feet long. Although no photo was obtained because the witness was "so busy trying to figure out what the hell I was looking at" that he did not think to take a picture with his cell phone, the witness was so moved he called the Maryland Department of Natural Resources soon after the sighting. ALTERNATE EXPLANATIONS: Although there are alleged photographs of Chessie, there is no genuine evidence of its existence. Speculation to explain sightings has included a "mutant eel" theory, large river otters, prehistoric Zeuglodons, and South American anacondas escaping from 18th- and 19th- century sailing ships. At least one report of the monster has been identified as a visiting manatee. CHUCHUNYA LOCATION: Siberia, Russia. DESCRIPTION: It has been described as six to seven feet tall and covered with dark hair. According to the native accounts from the nomadic Yakut and Tungus tribes, they are a well built, Neanderthal-like man wearing pelts as clothes and a white patch of fur on its forearms. It is said to occasionally consume human flesh, unlike their close cryptid cousin the Almastis. Some witnesses reported seeing a tail on the creature corps. ALTERNATE EXPLANATIONS: Some cryptozoologists including Bernard Heuvelmans have speculated that Chuchunya may be a relict population of Neanderthal. Mark Hall, another cryptozoologist, has suggested surviving members of Homo gardarensis. No conclusive evidence for the existence of the creature have yet been presented.  SIGHTINGS: According to legend, near a small fishing village called Chekurovka, there was a Chechunya that lived in the mountains of Verchojansk and caught reindeer for their pelts and would scream upon meeting a person. The Chuchunya was killed by hunters in 1957 and body was brought to the Lena River to Yakutsk and disappeared. No physical evidence has been brought forth despite the many stories of there being a body. The only evidence there is are the numerous sightings by natives and a single photograph which cannot be documented or dated. CHUPACABRA LOCATION: Various parts of the Americas, originating in Puerto Rico. DESCRIPTION: The Chupacabra or Chupacabras, literally "goat-sucker"; from chupar, "to suck", and cabra, "goat") is a legendary creature.  The name comes from the animal's reported habit of attacking and drinking the blood of livestock, including goats. Physical descriptions of the creature vary. It is purportedly a heavy creature, the size of a small bear, with a row of spines reaching from the neck to the base of the tail. Puerto Rican comedian and entrepreneur Silverio Pérez is credited with coining the term Chupacabras soon after the first incidents were reported in the press. Initially, it was suspected that the killings were committed by a Satanic cult; later more killings were reported around the island, and many farms reported loss of animal life. Each of the animals was reported to have had its body bled dry through a series of small circular incisions. SIGHTINGS: Eyewitness sightings have been claimed in Puerto Rico, and have since been reported as far north as Maine, and as far south as Chile, and even being spotted outside the Americas in countries like Russia and the Philippines, but many of the reports have been disregarded as uncorroborated or lacking evidence. The first reported attack eventually attributed to the creatures occurred in March 1995 in Puerto Rico. Eight sheep were discovered dead, each with three puncture wounds in the chest area and completely drained of blood. A few months later, in August, an eyewitness, Madelyne Tolentino, reported seeing the creature in the Puerto Rican town of Canóvanas, when as many as 150 farm animals and pets were reportedly killed. In 1975, similar killings in the small town of Moca were attributed to El Vampiro de Moca ("The Vampire of Moca"). Shortly after the first reported incidents in Puerto Rico, other animal deaths were reported in other countries, such as the Dominican Republic, Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Brazil, United States, and Mexico. ALTERNATE EXPLANATIONS: Sightings in northern Mexico and the southern United States have been verified as canids afflicted by mange. According to biologists and wildlife management officials, the Chupacabra is an urban legend. In late October 2010, University of Michigan biologist Barry O'Connor concluded that all the Chupacabra reports in the United States were simply coyotes infected with the parasite Sarcoptes scabiei, whose symptoms would explain most of the features of the Chupacabra: they would be left with little fur, thickened skin, and rank odor. O'Connor theorized that the attacks on goats occurred "because these animals are greatly weakened, they're going to have a hard time hunting. So they may be forced into attacking livestock because it's easier than running down a rabbit or a deer." COLE HOLLOW ROAD MONSTER LOCATION: Pekin, Illinois DESCRIPTION: The Cole Hollow Road Monster (or Comoho) is described as being around 8 to 9ft tall, covered in whitish gray hair, long round ears, red lips, human like hands (meaning the thumbs were double jointed and set farther down than the rest of the fingers), it appeared to resemble a cross between and ape and caveman. It gave off a putrid smell that was described like that of a wet dog mixed with rotten eggs. The creature left behind large tracks that appeared to only show three toes. SIGHTINGS: In early May of 1972, Randy Emmert (18yrs old) and some friends reported seeing a very large, white haired, creature in the vicinity of Cole Hollow Road in Pekin, Illinois. They stated that the creature made loud almost screeching like sounds and that they believed it was living underneath an abandoned house. Days later, on May 25th, the East Peoria police logged more than 200 calls from witnesses who sighted the monster. The calls ranged from seeing the monster walking through the woods, through yards, or along river banks, to a report of the monster destroying a callers fence. The police were naturally skeptical of all the calls, but kept track of them nonetheless. Two months later, during July 1972, a local search party was formed and more than 100 people took to the woods surrounding Cole Hollow Road to search for the monster. The search party had to be disbanded by the police a few hours later after a volunteer accidentally shot himself in the foot. The monster was not located but it did start being referred to by its nickname, Cohomo (COle HOllowMOnster) amongst the locals. On July 25th, a witness contacted the police to report that they had seen a large hairy man-like creature swimming in the Illinois River. On July 28th, a local woman reported seeing the monster near an abandoned coal mine while she was out gathering berries, the creature scared her so much that she ran off leaving her possessions behind. That same night, the police received a report from two reliable witnesses who stated that they saw the creature well enough to give a description. The monster craze slowly fizzled out in the years to follow due to the lack of capture. Many believe a Bigfoot was being sighted by the locals and because it naturally kept moving and eventually moved out of the region, the sightings of Cohomo stopped. But Bigfoot appears to have not fully lost interest in the area, sporadic sightings are still reported to this day. CON RIT LOCATION: Algeria, Vietnam DESCRIPTION: The many-finned sea serpent is an unverified species or group of species of marine animals which seem to possess numerous fins along their sides or backs. The creatures are supposedly capable of growing to enormous lengths; around 45 m for one such creature sighted near Algeria. In his book, On the Nature of Animals (second century CE), Greek military writer Aelian reported that these sea serpents were known to beach themselves. He also reported that witnesses had described such creatures as having lobster-like tails and large nostrils with hair. SIGHTINGS: In 1883, a dead specimen of an armored sea serpent was supposedly observed on a beach in Hongay, Along Bay, Vietnam. Witness Tran Van Con claimed that the carcass was 18 meters long, and was covered with 60-cm armored segments throughout its length. Attached to each segment was a pair of filament-like structures, each of them being 70 cm long. The body was dark brown above, and light yellow on its underside. The headless carcass was later towed out to sea. The alleged incident was reported 38 years after the fact to Dr. A. Krempf. In 1899, the ship HMS Narcissus was traveling near Cape Falcon, Algeria, when the sailors aboard sighted a "sea monster". Estimated at 45 meters in length, the animal possessed an "immense number of fins", which propelled it through the water with enough speed to keep pace with the ship. The creature was observed for 30 minutes. ALTERNATE EXPLANATIONS: Bernard Heuvelmans theorized that such animals were armored Basilosaurs, and pointed out that ancient whale fossils had been known to possess bony dermal plaques. However, such plaques present in association with whale fossils are now known to come from other species. Thus, there is no evidence that armored Basilosaurs ever existed. Ecologist and cryptozoologist Michael A. Woodley suggested in In the Wake of Bernard Heuvelmans that the evidence points towards an invertebrate rather than a cetacean identity, and has speculated that the con-rit might be a fully aquatic descendent of the giant myriapod Arthropleura, which became extinct at the beginning of the Permian period. CRESSIE LOCATION: British Columbia, Canada DESCRIPTION: "Cressie" has been described as a large, dark-colored eel 5 ft to 25 ft in length. SIGHTINGS: In local folklore, sightings of Cressie originate in the 1950s, when two men claimed they saw something that looked like an upturned boat heading upwind that flipped itself around and dived below the lake. In July, 1991, Cressie was supposedly seen swimming on the lake's surface. In the summer of 2003, several town residents say they saw the creature swimming again. According to the tale, divers from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police have allegedly described seeing "giant eels as thick as a man's thigh" in the lake, however RCMP does not confirm any such reports. Although local Native Canadian legends of the "Woodum Haoot" (Pond Devil) or "Haoot Tuwedyee" (Swimming Demon) are often cited by cryptozooloists, no connection has ever been verified. ALTERNATE EXPLANATIONS: According to skeptical investigator Joe Nickell, several natural occurrences can explain "Cressie" sightings, such as lake eels misinterpreted as a larger creature, floating and decomposing logs, and the dark-colored northern river otter, "who swims both under water and at the surface where its wake can make it appear much longer, and moves in an undulating (rising and falling) manner...In addition, multiple otters swimming in a line can give the effect of a single giant serpentine creature slithering with an up-and-down movement through water". CROCODILE FROG LOCATION: Borneo DESCRIPTION: Described as a crocodile-frog hybrid. Known from both native legends and sightings in 1976 and 1985, the Crocodile Frog was described as 7-9 feet long, with slimy skin, a pointed head, over-developed hind legs, and a short tail. ALTERNATE EXPLANATIONS: Others suggest the Crocodile Frog is a surviving example of extinct giant amphibian varieties. This description doesn't exactly match known modern animal, although an injured or malformed crocodile could fit the description.  CYNOCEPHALI LOCATION: Such cynocephalics are known in mythology and legend from many parts of the world, including ancient Egypt, Greece, and China. DESCRIPTION: The characteristic of cynocephaly, or cynocephalus, having the head of a dog—or of a jackal—is a widely attested mythical phenomenon existing in many different forms and contexts. The literal meaning of "cynocephaly" is "dog-headed"; however, that this refers to a human body with a dog head is implied. Often, such creatures also have human intelligence. Cynocephaly is generally distinguished from lycanthropy (werewolfism) and dogs that can talk. SIGHTINGS: Further mentions come from the medieval East and Europe. In modern popular culture Cynocephalics are also encountered as characters in books, comics, and graphic novels.  Reports of dog-headed races can also be traced back to Greek antiquity. In the fifth century BC, the Greek physician Ctesias, in his Indica, wrote a detailed report on the existence of Cynocephali in India. Similarly, the Greek traveler Megasthenes claimed to know about dog-headed people in India who lived in the mountains, communicated through barking, wore the skins of wild animals and lived by hunting. Herodotus reports claims by ancient Libyans that such creatures inhabit the east of their lands, as well as headless men and various other anomalies. Cynocephali also figure in medieval Christian world-views. A legend that placed St. Andrew and St. Bartholomew among the Parthians presented the case of "Abominable", the citizen of the "city of cannibals... whose face was like unto that of a dog." After receiving baptism, however, he was released from his doggish aspect.   D DEVIL BIRD The Devil Bird, locally known as Ulama, is a cryptid of Sri Lanka said to emit bloodcurdling human-sounding shrieks in the night from within the jungles. In Sri Lankan folklore, it is believed that the cry of this bird is an omen that portends death. Its precise identity is still a matter of debate although the spot-bellied eagle-owl matches the profile of Devil Bird to a large extent, according to a finding in the year 2001. As the bird is not usually seen and its cry only described in vague terms, Ulama records might refer to the Ceylon highland nightjar . "Devil Bird or Ulama or Ulalena. The precise identity of this bird is one of the mysteries of the Ceylon jungles. Its eerie cries have been attributed to a variety of birds. The most likely candidates however are: the forest eagle-owl for the up country area, the hawk-eagles and the crested honey-buzzard in the lowland jungles." A spot-bellied eagle-owl specimen found by villagers in 2001 received much publicity in the press as the final resolution of the bird's identity but the natives who actually have heard the 'true' cry of the Ulama and had seen the bird in action, are certain that it is a changeable hawk-eagle, which is more in agreement with the description of the bird in the local folklore. The reason for the confusion is probably the fact that most Sri Lankans have a mistaken perception as to the true cry of the Ulama. DEVIL MONKEY There have been reports of "Devil monkeys" which are large baboon like primates that are now being spotted in the wooded areas of Flagstaff, Arizona. The eye witness said that she noticed her dog was acting very agitated when they we're on they're hike through Mt. Elden forest trail, when she noticed a small group of primitive looking creatures scurrying through the rocks. She described them as 4-5 feet tall, very quick and agile. These so called creatures are called "Devil Monkeys" in other places of the United States. There have also been other sightings in other states such as New Mexico, Utah and Colorado. Unique breeds of monkey have been described as being about 3 to 4 feet tall, although some eyewitnesses have sworn that these furry fiends can reach a height that is in excess of 7 feet. It seems clear, however, that those who have had an encounter with this larger version of the beast are actually describing a run-in with a prototypical hairy humanoid and not the smaller, more primate-like Devil Monkey. The first reported encounter with this swift, dangerous predator occurred in 1934, in South Pittsburgh, Tennessee. According to the reports — which were allegedly published in national newspapers — eyewitnesses described a mysterious beast that could “leap across fields” with “lightening speed.”  While these 1934 encounters may or may not be associated with this phenomenon, the first “official” Devil Monkey sighting occurred in 1959, while a couple by the name of Boyd were driving through the mountains near their home in Saltville, Virginia. According to their account, an ape-like beast attacked their car, leaving three scratch marks on the vehicle. The Boyd’s daughter, Pauline, described the terrifying attacker: “(It had) light, taffy colored hair, with a white blaze down its neck and underbelly… it stood on two, large well-muscled back legs and had shorter front legs or arms.” Boyd went on to describe a second Devil Monkey encounter that occurred just days later in the same region.  In 1969, esteemed mystery ape researchers Johnn Green looked into accounts of a long-tailed “monkey” beast that eyewitnesses claimed was lurking near Mamquam, British Columbia. This creature was said to have left a series of distinctive, three toed tracks — much like those attributed to Devil Monkeys as well as the legendary Bigfoot— in its wake. In 1973, famed cryptozoologist and author Lauren Coleman investigated reports of three, black bushy-tailed “giant monkeys” that were said to have slaughtered livestock in Albany, Kentucky. On January 12, 2006, an anonymous witness claimed that he and his family entered their Chicago home to discover what he asserted was a “devil-like creature violently attacking my 6 year-old labrador dog.” The man further described the beast as being “an unusual combination of a monkey, wolf, and devil” with “long fangs, a monkey-like tail and extremely bright glowing eyes.” Surprisingly, this fellow — unlike so many others who are taken aback by their first encounter with an ostensibly violent cryptid — claimed that he remained calm enough to grab a nearby camera and snap a photo of the allegedly diabolical fiend. DINGONEK The dingonek is a scaly, scorpion-tailed, saber-toothed cryptid allegedly seen in the African Congolese jungles (primarily those of the Democratic Republic). Said to dwell in the rivers and lakes of western Africa, the Dingonek has been described as being grey or red, 3–6 m (9.8–19.7 ft) in length, with a squarish head, sometimes a long horn, saber-like canines—which has resulted in its nickname the "Jungle Walrus"—and a tail complete with a bony, dart-like appendage, which is reputed to be able to secrete a deadly poison. This creature is also said to be covered head-to-toe in a scaly, mottled epidermis, which has been likened to the pangolin. The description by John Alfred Jordan, an explorer who said that he actually shot at this unidentified monster in the River Maggori in Kenya in 1907, claimed this scale-covered creature was as big as 18 ft (5.5 m) long and had reptilian claws, a spotted back, long tail, and a big head out of which grew large, curved, walrus-like tusks. A shot with a .303 only served to anger it. At the Brakfontein ridge, Western Cape in South Africa is a cave painting of an unknown creature that allegedly fits the description of the dingonek, including its walrus-like tusks. It is said to be exceedingly territorial and to kill any hippos, crocodiles, and even fishermen who have had the misfortune of wandering too close to their aquatic nests. DOBHAR-CHU The Dobhar-chú ("water dog" or "water hound") or King Otter is a creature of Irish folklore. It resembles both a dog and an otter though sometimes is described as a half dog, half fish. It lives in water and has fur with protective properties. A headstone, found in Conwall cemetery in Glenade, County Leitrim depicts the Dobhar-chú and is related to a tale of an attack on a local woman by the creature. The stone is claimed to be the headstone of a grave of a woman killed by the Dobhar-chú in the 17th century. Her name was supposedly Gráinne. Her husband supposedly heard her scream as she was washing clothes down at Glenade Lough and came to her aid. When he got there she was already dead, with the Dobhar-chú upon her bloody and mutilated body. The man killed the Dobhar-chú, stabbing it in the heart. As it died, it made a whistling noise, and its mate arose from the lough. Its mate chased the man but, after a long and bloody battle, he killed it as well. Note that dobharchú is an obsolete Irish word for 'otter'. The modern Irish word for water is 'uisce' although 'dobhar' is also (rarely) used. DODO The dodo is an extinct flightless bird that was endemic to the island of Mauritius, east of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean. The dodo's closest genetic relative was the also-extinct Rodrigues solitaire, the two forming the subfamily Raphinae of the family of pigeons and doves. The closest living relative of the dodo is the Nicobar pigeon. A white dodo was once thought to have existed on the nearby island of Réunion, but this is now thought to have been confusion based on the Réunion ibis and paintings of white dodos. Subfossil remains show the dodo was about 3 ft 3 in tall and may have weighed 23–39 lb in the wild. The dodo's appearance in life is evidenced only by drawings, paintings, and written accounts from the 17th century. As these vary considerably, and only some of the illustrations are known to have been drawn from live specimens, its exact appearance in life remains unresolved, and little is known about its behavior. Though the dodo has historically been considered fat and clumsy, it is now thought to have been well-adapted for its ecosystem. It has been depicted with brownish-grey plumage, yellow feet, a tuft of tail feathers, a gray, naked head, and a black, yellow, and green beak. It used gizzard stones to help digest its food, which is thought to have included fruits, and its main habitat is believed to have been the woods in the drier coastal areas of Mauritius. One account states its clutch consisted of a single egg. It is presumed that the dodo became flightless because of the ready availability of abundant food sources and a relative absence of predators on Mauritius. The first recorded mention of the dodo was by Dutch sailors in 1598. In the following years, the bird was hunted by sailors and invasive species, while its habitat was being destroyed. The last widely accepted sighting of a dodo was in 1662. Its extinction was not immediately noticed, and some considered it to be a mythical creature. In the 19th century, research was conducted on a small quantity of remains of four specimens that had been brought to Europe in the early 17th century. Among these is a dried head, the only soft tissue of the dodo that remains today. Since then, a large amount of subfossil material has been collected on Mauritius, mostly from the Mare aux Songes swamp. The extinction of the dodo within less than a century of its discovery called attention to the previously unrecognized problem of human involvement in the disappearance of entire species. The dodo achieved widespread recognition from its role in the story of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, and it has since become a fixture in popular culture, often as a symbol of extinction and obsolescence. DOVER DEMON The Dover Demon is a creature reportedly sighted in the town of Dover, Massachusetts on April 21 and April 22, 1977. Seventeen-year-old William Bartlett claimed that while driving on April 21, 1977, he saw a large-eyed creature "with tendril-like fingers" and glowing eyes on top of a broken stone wall on Farm Street in Dover, Massachusetts. Fifteen-year-old John Baxter reported seeing a similar creature on Miller Hill Road the same evening. Another 15-year-old, Abby Brabham, claimed to have seen the creature the following night on Springdale Avenue. The teenagers all drew sketches of the alleged creature. Bartlett wrote on his sketch, "I, Bill Bartlett, swear on a stack of Bibles that I saw this creature." According to the Boston Globe, "the locations of the sightings, plotted on a map, lay in a straight line over 2 miles". The Dover Demon went on to gain worldwide attention, and drew comparison to stories such as that of Bigfoot and the Loch Ness monster. Some suggested that the creature may have been a foal or a moose calf. Police told the Associated Press that creatures reported by the teenagers "were probably nothing more than a school vacation hoax." More than three decades after seeing something very strange on Farm Street, Bartlett has decidedly mixed feelings about the experience. ‘‘It was my 15 minutes of fame, without wanting it,’’ he said. ‘‘It was little embarrassing. It still is.’’ He said he hasn’t talked much to his two children, 8 and 5 years old, about the creature: ‘‘I don’t want to scare them.’’ And the professional artist has never drawn another picture of the thing he saw. ‘‘I don’t have enough memory of it,’’ he said. ‘‘I haven’t wanted to. I’m a serious fine-arts painter. I don’t want people to think I’m some freak.” DRAGONS A dragon is a large, serpent-like legendary creature that appears in the folklore of many cultures around the world. Beliefs about dragons vary drastically by region, but dragons in western cultures since the High Middle Ages have often been depicted as winged, horned, four-legged, and capable of breathing fire. Dragons in eastern cultures are usually depicted as wingless, four-legged, serpentine creatures with above-average intelligence. The earliest attested dragons resemble giant snakes. Dragon-like creatures are first described in the mythologies of the ancient Near East and appear in ancient Mesopotamian art and literature. Stories about storm-gods slaying giant serpents occur throughout nearly all Indo-European and Near Eastern mythologies. Famous prototypical dragons include the mušhuššu of ancient Mesopotamia, Apep in Egyptian mythology, Vrtra in the Rigveda, the Leviathan in the Hebrew Bible, Python, Ladon, Wyvern, and the Lernaean Hydra in Greek mythology, Jörmungandr, Níðhöggr, and Fafnir in Norse mythology, and the dragon from Beowulf. The popular western image of a dragon as winged, four-legged, and capable of breathing fire is an invention of the High Middle Ages based on a conflation of earlier dragons from different traditions. In western cultures, dragons are portrayed as monsters to be tamed or overcome, usually by saints or culture heroes, as in the popular legend of Saint George and the Dragon. They are often said to have ravenous appetites and to live in caves, where they hoard treasure. These dragons appear frequently in western fantasy literature, including The Hobbit by J. R. R. Tolkien, the Harry Potter series by J. K. Rowling, and A Song of Ice and Fire by George R. R. Martin. The word "dragon" has also come to be applied to the Chinese lung, which are associated with good fortune and are thought to have power over rain. Dragons and their associations with rain are the source of the Chinese customs of dragon dancing and dragon boat racing. Many East Asian deities and demigods have dragons as their personal mounts or companions. Dragons were also identified with the Emperor of China, who, during later Chinese imperial history, was the only one permitted to have dragons on his house, clothing, or personal articles. Dragon-like creatures appear in virtually all cultures around the globe. Nonetheless, scholars dispute where the idea of a dragon originates from and a wide variety of theories have been proposed. In his book An Instinct for Dragons (2000), anthropologist David E. Jones suggests a hypothesis that humans, just like monkeys, have inherited instinctive reactions to snakes, large cats, and birds of prey. He cites a study which found that approximately 390 people in a thousand are afraid of snakes and notes that fear of snakes is especially prominent in children, even in areas where snakes are rare. The earliest attested dragons all resemble snakes or bear snakelike attributes. Jones therefore concludes that the reason why dragons appear in nearly all cultures is because of humans' innate fear of snakes and other animals that were major predators of humans' primate ancestors. Dragons are usually said to reside in "dank caves, deep pools, wild mountain reaches, sea bottoms, haunted forests", all places which would have been fraught with danger for early human ancestors. E EBU - GOGO The Ebu Gogo are a group of human-like creatures that appear in the mythology of Flores, Indonesia. In the Nage language of central Flores, ebu means "grandmother" and gogo means "he who eats anything". A colloquial English equivalent might be something like "old glutton". The Nage people of Flores describe the Ebu Gogo as walkers and fast runners around 1.5 m tall. They reportedly had wide and flat noses, broad faces with large mouths and hairy bodies. The females also had "long, pendulous breasts". They were said to have murmured in what was assumed to be their own language and could reportedly repeat what was said to them in a parrot-like fashion. The legends relating to the Ebu Gogo were traditionally attributed to monkeys, according to the journal Nature. The Nage people believe that the Ebu Gogo were alive at the time of the arrival of Portuguese trading ships in the 17th century, and some hold that they survived as recently as the 20th century, but are now no longer seen. The Ebu Gogo are believed to have been hunted to extinction by the human inhabitants of Flores. They believe that the extermination, which culminated around seven generations ago, was undertaken because the Ebu Gogo stole food from human dwellings, and kidnapped children. An article in New Scientist gives the following account of folklore on Flores surrounding the Ebu Gogo: in the 18th century, villagers gave the Ebu Gogo a gift of palm fiber to make clothes, and once the Ebu Gogo took the fiber into their cave, the villagers threw in a firebrand to set it alight, killing all of the occupants (one pair may have fled into the forest). There are also legends about the Ebu Gogo kidnapping human children, hoping to learn from them how to cook. The children always easily outwit the Ebu Gogo in the tales. The discovery of the remains of a meter-tall hominin on Flores Homo floresiensis, alive perhaps as recently as 13,000 years ago (though a 2016 study suggests 50,000 years), has inspired more literal interpretations of the Ebu Gogo stories. Anthropologist Gregory Forth, Professor of Anthropology at the University of Alberta, Canada has stated that "wildman" myths are prevalent in Southeast Asia and has investigated their linguistic and ritual roots, speculating that H. floresiensis may be evidence that the folktales of Ebu Gogo and similar creatures such as the Orang Pendek on Sumatra may be cultural memories rooted in fact. ELASMOTHERIUM An extinct genus of large rhinoceros endemic to Eurasia during the Late Pliocene through the Pleistocene, existing from 2.6 Ma to at least as late as 39,000 years ago in the Late Pleistocene. A more recent date of 26,000 BP is considered less reliable. Three species are recognized. The best known, E. sibiricum, or Siberian unicorn was the size of a mammoth and is thought to have borne a large, thick horn on its forehead. Theories about the function of this horn include defense against predators, attracting mates, driving away competitors, sweeping snow from the grass in winter, and digging for water and plant roots. Like all rhinoceroses, elasmotheres were herbivorous. Unlike any other rhinos, its high-crowned molars were ever-growing. Its legs were longer than those of other rhinos and were adapted for galloping, giving it a horse-like gait. A 2018 study indicated that the extinction of E. sibiricum occurred about 39,000 years BP, prior to the last glacial maximum and much more recently than the 200,000 years BP date previously assumed. This timing is roughly coincident with a shift to a cooler climate, which resulted in replacement of grasses and herbs by lichens and mosses over a wide area from Eastern Europe to China, as well as with the replacement of Homo neanderthalensis by Homo sapiens in the area. EL CUERO El Cuero is an extremely dangerous South American lake monster, having a hairless head and spine, and a body has the appearance of a cow hide which has been splayed out to dry. It has wide pectoral fins and a long, whip-like tail, absent of a barb. Its eyes are on stalks and its mouth is apparently extendable, like that of a sturgeon. Eyewitness have also reported seeing a serious of razor sharp claws along the fringes of El Cuero, which the creature uses to secure its prey. The size of El Cuero ranges from 2-5 feet across and approximately 65 pounds. Although El Cuero may be distantly related to the family of freshwater stingrays known as the Stenohaline, which inhabit South America, there are a few notable differences between South America’s freshwater stingrays and El Cuero. El Cuero apparently hunts in the Chilean glacial Lake Lacar, located in the Andes Mountains. South American natives constantly tell that El Cuero is a voracious predator, giving it the nickname "aquatic tiger." The monster apparently surges out of the lake, like a crocodile, and overwhelms its prey (humans). It then uses its proboscis to puncture the skin and suck out the internal organs and blood. There have been countless, yet controversial, attacks on humans. One story tells of a woman washing clothes by the lakeside as her baby slept nearby. According to her, the creature burst from the water like a crocodile and engulfed the baby. It then slipped into the water as quickly as it appeared. Similar creatures to El Cuero have been reported to dwell in the rivers and lagoons of both Argentina and Chile, and the legend of El Cuero has circulated throughout the indigenous populations of these two nations. Some investigators have pointed out the similarities between this animal and the vicious Hueke-Hueke, another South American lake cryptid. The reports are so similar that experts consider them the same animal. South American mothers warn their children to stay away from lakesides, fearing "Hueke Hueke" will eat them. Scientists theorize that El Cuero might be a primitive invertebrate, similar to the nudibranch. Nudibranches are active predators and, like El Cuero, can even surge onto land when hunting mollusks. It is possible that the El Cuero's vicious attacks could be misidentification. The mata-mata is a grotesque chelonian that has a flat shell and an ugly head. It is possible that El Cuero could be a rogue mata-mata. ELMENDORF BEAST The Elmendorf Beast was the name given to a coyote blamed for several attacks on livestock in Elmendorf, Texas. Various opinions have been offered as to the identity of the creature, including that it was a Mexican Hairless Dog whose appearance had been altered by sickness and/or congenital ailments, and that it was a wolf–coyote cross. Some local people have linked it to the legend of the Chupacabra, while others believe that it was the product of a lab experiment that escaped, or that it was a previously unknown form of canid that was forced into contact with humans after its natural habitat was destroyed. In August 2004, an animal eventually termed the Elmendorf Beast was shot and killed by local rancher Devin McAnally. The animal was found to be twenty pounds (nine kilograms). It had a severe overbite and unusual skin which was blue and hairless. Experts at San Antonio Zoo were unable to conclusively identify the creature, but based on its skull they speculated that it was a Mexican Hairless Dog. It was later determined by DNA assay conducted at University of California, Davis to be a coyote with demodectic or sarcoptic mange and not originally hairless. DNA gathered from the carcass was inconclusive due to environmental degradation, though it was confirmed that the animal was a member of the canine family. Two similar carcasses were discovered in Texas and were found to be coyotes, suffering from very severe cases of mange. ELWETRITSCH The Elwetritsch (aka Elwedritsch, Ilwedritsch and so on), plural Elwetritsche or Elwetritschen, in Latin Bestia palatinensis (a non-scientific designation) is a birdlike mythical creature which is reported to be found in southwest Germany, especially in the Palatinate. The Elwetritsch can be seen as a local equivalent to mythical creatures of other regions. The Elwedritschen had been forgotten for a while, until a gentleman named Espenschied "rediscovered" them. He began to organize "hunting parties" which were actually harmless pranks. One of the Bavarian Kings was once served roasted, small birds for dinner, which were declared to be Elwetritsche (actually quail). The Elwedritsch is a fictional creature that supposedly inhabits the Palatinate of Germany. It is described as being a chicken-like creature with antlers. It also has scales instead of feathers. However, it is said that their wings are of little use. That is why they live mainly in underbrush and under vines. Sometimes Elwetritschen are depicted with antlers of a stag and their beaks often appear to be very long. In the second half of the 20th century, artists increasingly portrayed Elwetritschen as female by adding breasts. Elwetritschen supposedly originate from crossbreeding chickens, ducks, and geese with mythical wood creatures such as goblins and elves. Being a fowl, they naturally lay eggs, which as a result of descending from forest spirits, grow during breeding season. EMELA-NTOUKA The Emela-ntouka in Lingala language is an elephant-sized cryptid that lives in the Congo and possibly Cameroon. Feared by natives as "The Elephant Killer" it is ferocious and kills anything that it encounters. The Emela-ntouka is claimed to be around the size of an African Bush Elephant (average 10.5 ft, 13,230 lb), brownish to gray in color, with a heavy tail, and with a body of similar shape and appearance to a rhinoceros, including one long horn on its snout. Supporting its massive bulky body above ground level are supposed four short, stump-like legs. It is described as having no frills or ridges along the neck. The animal is alleged to be semi-aquatic and feed on Malombo and other leafy plants. The Emela-ntouka is claimed to utter a vocalization, described as a snort, rumble or growl. The structure of its horn is debated among writers on the subject. The debate runs thus: if the "horn" is ivory, then it would be a tusk (tooth) and not a horn at all. Some rhinoceroses do have tusks, especially the Asiatic one-horned kinds; yet these are not known to inhabit Africa. If the horn is made of bone, then the creature is a reptile, as many fossil reptile groups, such as the ceratopsians, had horns made of bone. Finally, the horn could be made of keratin, as are the horns of African rhinos. However, without a specimen to examine, any attempt to classify the Emela-ntouka by this method can only be speculative. Emela-ntouka seems to resemble a ceratopsian, a type of dinosaur with horns like Styracosaurus and the famous Triceratops according to Dr. Roy Mackal (while searching the Congo for the Mokele-mbembe, the man had collected accounts of these Emela-ntouka). Cryptozoologist Loren Coleman, however, believes it is an aquatic rhinoceros rather than a ceratopsian. Emela-ntouka is slightly larger than an elephant, which it reportedly hunts. J.E. Hughes published his book Eighteen Years on Lake Bangweulu in 1933, in which he reported that an animal that fits the description of an Emela-Ntouka (although not referred to by this name) was slaughtered by Wa-Ushi tribesmen, along the shores of the Luapula River, which connects Lake Bangweulu to Lake Mweru. The Emela-Ntouka was mentioned by name for the first time in 1954, in an article in the journal Mammalia, authored by former Likouala game inspector Lucien Blancou. He stated the Emela-Ntouka was "larger than a buffalo" and dwelled throughout the Likouala swamps. It was also Blancou who first mentioned the fact that an Emela-Ntouka kills elephants, buffaloes or hippos when disturbed, much like the Mokele-mbembe's allegedly renowned hatred for hippos. While both animals are supposedly herbivorous, they also supposedly share a fierce sense of territoriality, and it is, for this reason, the pygmies are claimed to "fear it more than any other dangerous animal". In about 1930, an Emela-Ntouka was supposedly killed near Dongou. Later evidence was contributed by Dr. Roy P. Mackal, who led two expeditions into the Congo in 1980 and 1981. He gathered details on various other cryptids. 1987 saw the publication of Mackal’s book, A Living Dinosaur, wherein he summarized the expeditions. ENFIELD MONSTER The Enfield Monster refers to reports of an unidentified creature around Enfield, Illinois, United States in April 1973. The reports were covered by the news media at the time, with some suggesting they may have been caused by a wild ape or escaped kangaroo. Used as a case study for a paper on social contagion in 1978, sociologists cite the episode as an example of collective behavior where a group or crowd can be affected by the spread of "group emotions" such as "panics, hysterias, collective visions, and extreme instances of suggestibility." At about 9:30 on the night of April 25, 1973, Henry McDaniel heard a scratching sound at his front door. He looked out, and saw something that he thought might be a bear. Taking a gun and flashlight, he headed outside into a strong wind and saw a creature between two rosebushes. He later said "It had three legs on it, a short body, two little short arms, and two pink eyes as big as flashlights. It stood four and a half feet tall and was grayish-colored." He added later that it was "almost like a human body". McDaniel fired four shots at the creature, one shot hitting it and causing it to make a hiss "much like a wildcat's", before fleeing towards a nearby railway embankment, covering 50 feet in three jumps. McDaniel called the local authorities who discovered footprints in the soft earth near the house, which McDaniel described as dog-like in shape, with six toe pads. The police considered McDaniel to be "rational and sober" in his reporting of the incident. In a later press interview, McDaniel said "If they do find it, they will find more than one and they won't be from this planet, I can tell you that." Investigators interviewing nearby residents were told that Greg Garrett, a ten-year-old neighbor of McDaniel, claimed to have encountered the creature half an hour before McDaniel did, and that the creature had stepped on his feet, tearing his tennis shoes to shreds. The boy later told Western Illinois University researchers that his report was a hoax "to tease Mr. M and have fun with an out of town newsman." In 1978, researchers at Western Illinois University headed by David L. Miller investigated and analyzed the incident, publishing it as a case study in social contagion. The researchers found there were no more than three firsthand reports that had subsequently been exaggerated by news stories and local gossip into an "epidemic." ENNEDI TIGER The Ennedi tiger is a purportedly living Sabertooth cat inhabiting the Ennedi Plateau, located in the east of Chad, in Sub-Saharan Africa. There are reports of two different species, one that mainly inhabits the mountains (called Hadjel, Gassingram, or Vossoko), and a water-dwelling one (called Mourou N'gou, Mamaimé, or Dilali). The Mountain type, according to the reports, is a tail-less creature that is larger than a lion. Its teeth protrude from its mouth, and it has hairy feet and red or reddish-brown fur with white stripes. It is strong enough to carry off large antelopes. It is nocturnal and lives in caves in the Ouadai district of the Ennedi mountain range. Natives described it to western explorers, who identified it as a Machairodus sabertooth. The Water type is of unknown relation to the first, although it is also a fierce creature larger than a lion, about 8–12 feet with protruding teeth. The animal is red with white markings (comparable to mountain cats), to leopard-like with stripes, to uniform brown. Its teeth are always described as "walrus-like" and its tail is always described as long in reports. Some have suggested an otter as a candidate. Its habitat extends into the Central African Republic. There are also tales of water lions in folklore in Congo, Angola, Zimbabwe, Kenya and Sudan. A cave drawing that illustrates a walrus-like creature with a long tail exists in South Africa. The last lions in the Sahara also survived in these areas until they became extinct before the mid-1900s (the last lion was seen in 1940) F FISKERTON PHANTOM The Fiskerton Phantom is a cryptozoological phantom cat or other creature, which was reportedly sighted near Fiskerton, Lincolnshire in the United Kingdom. This is one of many alleged non-native British big cats about which a variety of theories have been proposed. The sighting was reported by four girls, between the ages of 9 and 14, staying at a caravan park next to the Tyrwhitt Arms pub at Short Ferry, a small hamlet near to Fiskerton, who described a four-foot-tall jet-black, bear-like creature feeding on a pheasant. The girls, who fled immediately to seek help in the pub, also reported finding large paw prints at the location when they returned later. Dave Brumhead, the Landlord of the Tyrwhitt Arms, reported that a motorist had made another sighting that evening, near where the girls had been. There were several further reports of a panther- or bear-like animal in the area in 1997. FLASHLIGHT FROG In June of 1997, naturalist and cryptozoologist, Jonathan Downes was visiting an animal fair at Newton Abbot in Devon, England. While there, he came across a cage of exotic tree frogs from Cameroon, West Africa. The exotic frog seller noted that the frogs were able to make their nose glow in darkness in order to attract prey. The vendor was selling the frogs for $38 per frog. Unable to purchase a specimen, Downes took the information to local herpetological scientists (herpetology: branch of zoology that studies amphibians) where he was told that science recognizes no frog species that are able to (or known to) produce a bio-luminescent light. The Flashlight Frog is described as being around 2-inches long with green skin uniformly covering its body and large pale eyes set widely upon its head. It is noted as having a slightly raised bump or “horn” at the end of its nose that is slightly blue in color. This is the area that is able to light up or glow via bio-luminescence (the production and emission of light by a living organism). At night, it lights up its nose to attract flying insects and once close enough, the frog strikes with a long pale yellow tongue. FLATWOODS MONSTER In West Virginia folklore, the Flatwoods monster, also known as the Braxton County Monster or Phantom of Flatwoods, is an entity reported to have been sighted in the town of Flatwoods in Braxton County, West Virginia, United States, on September 12, 1952, following the appearance of a bright object crossing the night sky. Nearly fifty years later, investigators concluded that the light was a meteor and the creature was a barn owl perched in a tree, with shadows making it appear to be a large humanoid. At 7:15 p.m. on September 12, 1952, two brothers, Edward and Fred May, and their friend Tommy Hyer said they saw a bright object cross the sky and land on the property of local farmer G. Bailey Fisher. The boys went to the home of Kathleen May, where they told their story. May, accompanied by the three boys, local children Neil Nunley and Ronnie Shaver, and West Virginia National Guardsman Eugene Lemon, went to the Fisher farm in an effort to locate whatever it was that the boys said they had seen. The group reached the top of a hill, where Nunley said they saw a pulsing red light. Lemon said he aimed a flashlight in that direction and momentarily saw a tall "man-like figure with a round, red face surrounded by a pointed, hood-like shape". FOUKE MONSTER In Arkansas folklore, the Fouke Monster is said to have been seen in Fouke in Miller County, Arkansas, during the early 1970s. The creature was accused of attacking a local family. Initial sightings of the creature were concentrated in the Jonesville/Boggy Creek area, where it was blamed for the destruction of local livestock. Later, sightings were made several hundred miles to the north and the east of Fouke. The creature was named by journalist Jim Powell, who reported on it for the Texarkana Gazette and the Texarkana Daily News. Various reports between 1971 and 1974 described the creature as being a large hominid-like creature covered in long dark hair, which was estimated to be about 7 feet tall with a weight of 250–300 pounds. Witnesses said that its chest was about 3 feet wide. Later reports, published during the early 1980s, claimed that it was far larger, with one report describing it as 10 feet tall, with an estimated weight of 800 pounds. Some accounts describe the Fouke Monster as running swiftly with a galloping gait and swinging its arms in a fashion similar to a monkey. Reports also describe it as having a terrible odor, the odor being described as a combination of a skunk and a wet dog, and as having bright red eyes about the size of silver dollars. A variety of tracks and claw marks have been discovered which are claimed to belong to the creature. One set of foot prints reportedly measured 17 inches in length and 7 inches wide, while another appeared to show that the creature only had three toes. The first reported sightings were in 1953, and in 1955 when it was spotted by a 14-year-old boy. The boy described it as having reddish brown hair, sniffed the air, and did not react when it was fired upon with birdshot. Investigator Joe Nickell observes that the description is consistent with a misidentified black bear. Despite claims of earlier sightings, the Fouke Monster first made headlines in 1971, when it was reported to have attacked the home of Bobby and Elizabeth Ford late on the night of May 2. According to Elizabeth Ford, the creature, which she initially took to be a bear, reached through a screen window while she was sleeping on a couch. It was chased away by her husband and his brother Don, who were suffering from mild shock when he arrived. During the encounters, the Fords fired several shots at the creature and believed that they had hit it, though no traces of blood were found. After an initial surge of attention, public interest in the creature decreased until 1973. It was boosted significantly when Charles B. Pierce released a documentary-style horror feature on the creature in 1972, The Legend of Boggy Creek. A-B C-F G-k L-M